• Public Lavatories

Public toilets provide the general public with access, regardless of payment/non-payment to access premises. The general public are free to access public toilets without having to be a resident, student, staff, member, guest or a regular client.

Public lavatories are diverse in their size and location with a wide variety of establishments ranging from motorway service stations, shopping malls, supermarkets, restaurants, food courts, coffee shops, nightclubs, public houses, cinemas, conference, stadiums, exhibition centres and many more.

In public area buildings, sanitary accommodation, which includes washing facilities, does require some form of mechanical ventilation at a minimum rate of 6 litres per second per WC or 3 air changes per hour.

Public toilets provide the general public with access, regardless of payment/non-payment to access premises. The general public are free to access public toilets without having to be a resident, student, staff, member, guest or a regular client.

Toilets are often provided with the minimum ventilation in order to comply with regulations, whilst achieving minor cost savings. However, these savings are often reflected in a very unpleasant toilet atmosphere.

Well ventilated restrooms can significantly reduce the sense that a restroom is dirty. Ventilation also protects occupants from the misapplication of dangerous commercial cleaning products.

In areas where toxic and noxious or objectionable fumes are present, ventilation should be extracted to the outside of the building.

Whilst public toilets themselves are actually the source of unpleasant smells, it is practically impossible to eliminate toilet odours completely unless the toilet is not being used.

It is recommended that the mechanical ventilation rate for toilets is between 6- 15 air changes per hour. With a higher air change rate, the removal of very unpleasant smells is more effective. Furthermore, it will also create a higher air movement inside the toilet that would help drying up wet floors more quickly, whilst providing some cooling effect to the users, especially during hot and humid summer days.

To minimise the spread of unpleasant smells inside a toilet, controlled and effective exhaust ventilation system is vital. The most effective approach would be to remove smells at their source as soon as possible, before there is any chance for it to spread. In general, the two major sources of smells in a toilet are the WC cubicles and the urinal areas.

Conventional toilet ventilation systems normally have exhaust ventilation outlets at ceiling level. However, this arrangement is considered not appropriate as unpleasant smells tend to be generated at low to mid level when people use the toilet.

The unpleasant smells will have to pass around the users nose before it can be removed by the exhaust air grilles at ceiling level. Besides, when the substances of these smells move along, they might also be trapped inside the slits of the building materials, becoming difficult to be removed. To avoid this, exhaust ventilation outlets should be located at low to mid level and close to the source so that odours generated could be removed instantly before causing any nuisance to the users or diffusing to other parts of the toilet.

To further enhance the ventilation effectiveness whilst combating unpleasant smells being spread through the whole toilet, ducted fresh air should be supplied at high level of the clean areas in the toilet (e.g. wash hand basins area, circulation areas etc) so that a positive pressure is created at these areas.

The airflow path inside the toilet will therefore be under control, and the fresh air will flow from the clean areas towards the unpleasant smell areas, and then removed by the mechanical exhaust system.

Elta Fans provide a wide range of ventilation products for public lavatory locations, so for more information please look at examples of typical products that could be used for these applications, or alternatively, please contact us to discuss your specific application requirement.